Paper: "Strain-Dependent Localization, Microscopic Deformations, and Macroscopic Normal Tensions in Model Polymer Networks" Physical Review Letters 93, 257801 (2004). Authors:  Carsten Svaneborg, Gary S. Grest, and Ralf Everaers.

We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the microscopic and macroscopic response of model polymer networks to uniaxial elongations. By studying networks with strand lengths ranging from N s 20 to 200 we cover the full crossover from cross-link to entanglement dominated behavior.Our results support a recent version of the tube model which accounts for the different strain dependence of chain localization due to chemical cross-links and entanglements.

Paper: "Disorder effects on the strain response of model polymer networks" Polymer 46, 4283 (2005)

Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate polymer networks made by either end-linking or randomly crosslinking a melt of linear precursor chains. The resulting network structures are very different, since end-linking leads to nearly ideal monodisperse networks, while random crosslinking leads to polydisperse networks, characterized by an exponential strand length distribution. Networks with average strand length 20 and 100 were generated. These networks were used to study the effects of disorder in the network connectivity on observables averaged either over the entire network or selected sub-structures. Heterogeneities in the randomly crosslinked networks cause significant differences in the localization of monomers, however, neither the localization of crosslinks nor the microscopic strain response are significantly affected. Compared to end-linked networks, randomly crosslinked networks have a slightly increased tube diameter, and as a result a slightly decreased shear modulus, but otherwise identical stress–strain behavior. For the investigated systems, we conclude that the microscopic strain response, tube diameter, and stress–strain relation are all insensitive to the heterogeneities due to the linking process by which the network were made.